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Uniform resources locater (URL)
A uniform (or universal) resource locator (URL) identify the address of a page on the web. The internet address in the unique name that identify the computer or user on the network. Addresses are used to send a messages between computers.
Understanding the addresses:
The Australian government have the home page with the address: http://www.australia.gov.au the first part(http://www.) identified that the site is part of the worldwide web and its documents are in accord with the hypertext transfer protocol (http).
Browser and webserver use http to communicate with each other. The second part (Australia.gov.au) identifies the organization or body that is hosting the site, followed by the country domain. In this case the country domain. In this case the country domain is ‘au’. All countries with the exception of USA, have a country domain. Sites in the United Stated of America do not include a country domain.
Every country on the internet has a unique number. The domain name system (DNS) provide the text title for the unique number address. The internet has a scheme to name companies, institutions and individuals on the internet.
A domain name is used to identify the internet address of a website. Individual and organization purchase and register domain names. There is usually a fee to register a domain name an annual charge to continue using a domain name. Internet service provider often host many different domain. The ISP controls the domain name server (DNS) that directs a URL with the domain name to the actual site.
Some requirement for registering domain names are that:
- The name cannot be already allocated.
- The organization must be a company or registered business; this can I include individual who a registered or recognized by appropriate government or industry authorities.
- A business name must be closely derived from the legal name of the organization.
- Common or generic names place name are not excepted.
The organization extension:
The organization extension which is part of web address, gives an idea of primary purpose of a site. The extension includes;
- Com- commercial business.
- Net. Internet servers providers.
- Org. nonprofit and non-government organization.
- Gove-government and government department departments.
- Info-providing information.
Some examples of the above are;
Air New Guinea = www.airnuigini.pg
University of Papua New Guinea = www.upng.ac.pg
Embassy of Papua New Guinea to the Americas = www.pngembassy.org
Papua New Guinea Law and justice department = www.lawandjustic.gov.pg
In many countries, the final two letters of the web address identify that country. For example the address: www.demon.co.uk is an address in the United Kingdom. Papua New Guinea has the country domain “pg”.
The browser is the software application that used to locate and excess webpages. Although browsers can have a range of features and creation tools, their primary function is to excess a page, download the content to that computer and view the page. Browser software allow users to navigate the world wide web.
Pages are assessed using established buttons and links. This software is client-based and platform-independent. This means that the browser software is developed for a range of different computers and operating systems and the same information is accessed on each platform.
Browser software is regularly upgraded and is the focus of much commercial and open-source competition. The most popular browser software is internet explorer, a browser that once commanded around 90% of usage.
Some browser companies its browsers;
- Internet explorer is, the creator is Microsoft
- Chrome, the creator is google.
- Firefox, the creator is Mozilla Foundations.
- Safari, the creator is apple and,
- Opera is opera software.
The browser preferences and settings customize the manner in which the webpage be viewed. Basic browser preferences include;
- The font type and font size for pages to be viewed.
- Whether pages a viewed as ‘text’ only or text and graphics.’
- The display color for visited and universal links.
- The URL of the page viewed when the browser is opened.
- The size of ‘chchae’ for the browser.
- The URL of the favored ‘search’ mechanism.
A browser can have a number of windows active at anyone time and can access more than one page for more than one site at the time.
Part of a computer hard disk can be used as a storage or ‘cache’ for the browser. A cache is a temporary storage area that is used to keep a copy of information that has been retrieved. Thus, information from downloaded pages is stored in the cache.
When a URL is accessed the browser refers to the cache to check is the page has previously been downloaded and, if it has page information can be accessed from the local hard disk rather than downloaded again.
For frequently accessed pages, it saves time although it may deliver outdated information if the page has been update on the web. Internet explorer refer to the ‘cache’ as ‘temporary internet files’. It allows the user to set the amount of disk space allocated to storing these files.
Choosing internet option on the tool menu and then selecting the settings option tab provided the opportunity to allocate the disk space.
The option to check for newer versions of the page is used to ensure files stored on a local hard disk do not become out of date.